What is Geothermal Energy?

geothermal energy

How Does Geothermal Energy Work?

Geothermal energy is a form of renewable energy that is harnessed from the heat stored beneath the Earth’s surface. This heat is a result of the radioactive decay of minerals and the original formation of the planet. It is continuously replenished, making geothermal energy a sustainable and reliable resource.

Geothermal energy is a fascinating and potent form of power lying right beneath our feet, waiting to be harnessed. In the upcoming sections, we will delve deeper into the mechanics of geothermal energy, exploring how this clean and inexhaustible energy source can be harnessed to power our homes, industries, and the future of sustainable living. Along the way, we’ll answer a number of questions, including:

  • Is geothermal a renewable energy source?
  • What is the source of geothermal energy?
  • How is geothermal energy made?

Why Geothermal Energy is Considered Renewable

Renewable and Sustainable

Geothermal energy is categorized as a renewable energy source due to its origination from the Earth’s constant and infinite heat. Unlike fossil fuels, which are finite and can deplete over time, the Earth’s core will continue to generate heat for billions of years to come. 

This remarkable characteristic of geothermal energy perfectly aligns with the sustainability goals of companies like BKV Energy, which strive to cater to the energy demands of today without compromising the needs and resources of future generations. With its inexhaustible nature and long-term viability, geothermal energy stands as a beacon of hope for a greener and more sustainable future.

geothermal power plant

What Makes Geothermal Energy Green?

Geothermal energy is considered “green” due to its minimal environmental footprint. Unlike traditional power plants, geothermal power plants do not burn fuel to generate electricity.

Instead, they tap into the Earth’s natural heat to produce clean, renewable energy. By harnessing this geothermal energy, these power plants significantly reduce the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere, helping to create a cleaner and more sustainable environment for future generations.

Is Geothermal Energy Sustainable?

Yes, geothermal energy is indeed sustainable. It harnesses the power of Earth’s natural heat, which is constantly replenished, providing a consistent and reliable source of energy.

Geothermal power plants, utilizing advanced technologies, can operate continuously, 24/7, regardless of weather conditions or time of day. This sets geothermal energy apart from other renewable sources like solar or wind, which may be dependent on external factors and intermittently available. 

Geothermal Energy: The Renewable Mechanism

How is Geothermal Energy Renewable?

The renewability of geothermal energy comes from the Earth’s ability to maintain its internal heat naturally. The vast reservoirs of hot water and steam beneath the Earth’s crust can be tapped for human use and then re-injected back into the ground in a cycle that can be repeated almost indefinitely.

What is the Source of Geothermal Energy?

Geothermal energy comes from the Earth’s core, where temperatures can reach over 5,000 degrees Celsius. This heat is transferred to the Earth’s crust through conduction and convection. Areas with high geothermal activity, such as hot springs, geysers, and volcanic regions, are prime spots for geothermal energy extraction.

Geothermal Energy Resources

Geothermal resources encompass the reservoirs of hot water and steam that reside beneath the Earth’s surface. These valuable resources are categorized based on their temperatures, which include low, moderate, and high enthalpy levels. High-enthalpy resources, characterized by their higher temperatures and energy content, are often harnessed for electricity generation, contributing to sustainable power production.

On the other hand, lower-enthalpy resources, though slightly cooler, still possess ample thermal energy to be utilized for heating applications, such as geothermal heating systems, promoting energy efficiency and reducing carbon emissions.

Type of Geothermal Power Plants

Geothermal Energy Production

Geothermal power plants harness the steam and hot water from the Earth and use it to drive turbines connected to electricity generators. There are three main types of geothermal power plants: dry steam, flash steam, and binary cycle, each utilizing different methods to extract and convert geothermal energy into electricity.

Dry Steam Plants

Example: The Geysers in California, USA

The Geysers, located in Northern California, is the largest complex of geothermal power plants in the world. It’s a dry steam field that directly uses geothermal steam to turn turbines.

Flash Steam Plants

Example: Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Station in Baja California, Mexico

Cerro Prieto is one of the largest geothermal power stations in the world. It uses high-pressure hot water from the ground, which is allowed to ‘flash’ into steam as it rises due to the lower pressure at the surface, which then drives the turbines.

Binary Cycle Power Plants

Example: Chena Geothermal Power Plant in Alaska, USA

The Chena power plant in Alaska is a binary cycle plant, which is particularly suitable for the lower temperature resources available in the area. It operates by passing hot geothermal fluid through a heat exchanger, where it heats a secondary fluid (like isobutane) that has a lower boiling point and flashes to vapor at a lower temperature than water. This vapor then drives the turbines.

geothermal electricity plant

Geothermal Energy for Heating and Cooling

Geothermal energy is not only a powerful source for electricity generation but also an efficient solution for heating and cooling applications. This sustainable energy harnesses the stable temperatures of the earth to manage climate control in buildings and homes.

Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHPs)

Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHPs) are the most common method for harnessing geothermal energy for heating and cooling. They utilize the earth’s constant underground temperature to transfer heat to or from a building.

How GHPs Work

Heating: During colder months, GHPs circulate a water-based solution through a loop system underground. This fluid absorbs heat from the ground and carries it into the building. Inside, a heat exchanger extracts the heat from the fluid to warm the air, which is then distributed throughout the building.

Cooling: Conversely, in warmer months, the system is reversed. The pump extracts heat from the building and transfers it to the ground, which is cooler than the air above surface level. This process removes heat from the building, thereby cooling it.

Advantages of Geothermal Heating and Cooling

  • Energy Efficiency: GHPs are incredibly energy-efficient, often cutting utility bills by 30-50% compared to conventional heating and cooling systems.
  • Environmentally Friendly: They reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as they rely on the stable geothermal energy from the earth rather than burning fossil fuels.
  • Low Maintenance: GHP systems have fewer moving parts and are protected from the elements underground, resulting in lower maintenance costs and longer lifespans.

Installation and Costs

The installation of geothermal heating and cooling systems involves significant upfront costs, primarily due to the need to drill and install the underground loop system. However, the long-term savings on energy bills and the potential for tax incentives can offset the initial investment.


  • Residential: GHPs can be installed in individual homes, providing efficient heating and cooling, as well as hot water in some configurations.
  • Commercial: Large office buildings, schools, and other facilities can utilize geothermal systems to manage their climate control needs more sustainably.
  • District Heating: Some communities leverage centralized geothermal heating systems to provide heat to multiple buildings or homes, optimizing the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the system.